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B3-4.2-02, Depository Accounts (12/14/2022)


This topic contains information on depository accounts, including:

Depository Accounts

Funds held in a checking, savings, money market, certificate of deposit, or other depository accounts may be used for the down payment, closing costs, and financial reserves. The funds must be verified as described in B3-4.2-01, Verification of Deposits and Assets. Unverified funds are not acceptable for the down payment, closing costs, or financial reserves.

The lender must investigate any indications of borrowed funds. These must be identified differently based upon how the asset account was verified.

Business Assets

Business assets may be an acceptable source of funds for the down payment, closing costs, and financial reserves. The borrower must be listed as an owner of the account and the account must be verified in accordance with  B3-4.2-01, Verification of Deposits and Assets. If the borrower is also using self-employment income from this business to qualify, see Section B3–3.2, Self-Employment Income, for additional information on the analysis of a self-employed borrower.

Evaluating Large Deposits

A large deposit is defined as a single deposit that exceeds 50% of the total monthly qualifying income for the loan.  When bank statements (typically covering the most recent two months) are used, the lender must evaluate large deposits. See  B3-4.1-04, Virtual Currency for additional information when a large deposit may be from virtual currency that was exchanged into U.S. dollars. Requirements for evaluating large deposits vary based on the transaction type, as shown in the table below.

Transaction Type Evaluation Requirements
Refinance transactions Documentation or explanation for large deposits is not required; however, the lender remains responsible for ensuring that any borrowed funds, including any related liability, are considered.
Purchase transactions
  • If funds from a large deposit are needed to complete the purchase transaction (that is, are used for the down payment, closing costs, or financial reserves), the lender must document that those funds are from an acceptable source. Occasionally, a borrower may not have all of the documentation required to confirm the source of a deposit. In those instances, the lender must use reasonable judgment based on the available documentation as well as the borrower’s debt-to-income ratio and overall income and credit profile. Examples of acceptable documentation include the borrower’s written explanation, proof of ownership of an asset that was sold, or a copy of a wedding invitation to support receipt of gift funds. The lender must place in the loan file written documentation of the rationale for using the funds.

  • Verified funds must be reduced by the amount (or portion) of the undocumented large deposit (as defined above), and the lender must confirm that the remaining funds are sufficient for the down payment, closing costs, and financial reserves. When the lender uses a reduced asset amount, net of the unsourced amount of a large deposit, that reduced amount must be used for underwriting purposes (whether the loan is underwritten manually or through DU).

    Note: When a deposit has both sourced and unsourced portions, only the unsourced portion must be used to calculate whether or not it must be considered a large deposit.


  • Scenario 1 : Borrower has monthly income of $4,000 and an account at ABC Bank with a balance of $20,000. A deposit of $3,000 is identified, but $2,500 of that deposit is documented as coming from the borrower's federal income tax refund.

    Only the unsourced $500 [the deposit of $3,000 minus the documented $2,500] must be considered in calculating whether it meets the large deposit definition.

    The unsourced $500 is 12.5% of the borrower’s $4,000 monthly income, falling short of the 50% definition of a large deposit.

    Therefore, it is not considered a large deposit and the entire $20,000 balance in the ABC Bank account can be used for underwriting purposes.

  • Scenario 2 : Using the same borrower example, a deposit of $3,000 is identified, but only $500 is documented as coming from the borrower’s federal income tax refund, leaving $2,500 unsourced.

    In this instance, the unsourced $2,500 is 63% of the borrower’s $4,000 monthly income, which does meet the definition of a large deposit.

    Therefore, the unsourced $2,500 must be subtracted from the account balance of $20,000 and only the remaining $17,500 may be used for underwriting purposes.

Note: If the source of a large deposit is readily identifiable on the account statement(s), such as a direct deposit from an employer (payroll), the Social Security Administration, or IRS or state income tax refund, or a transfer of funds between verified accounts, and the source of the deposit is printed on the statement, the lender does not need to obtain further explanation or documentation. However, if the source of the deposit is printed on the statement, but the lender still has questions as to whether the funds may have been borrowed, the lender should obtain additional documentation.

The DU validation service automates the assessment of large deposits. When assets are validated, DU issues a message indicating which large deposits require documentation. Compliance with the DU messages satisfies the requirement for documenting large deposits. See B3-2-02, DU Validation Service

Request for Verification of Deposit

When a Verification of Deposit (Form 1006) (VOD) is used and depository activity is not included, the lender must verify the source of funds for

  • accounts opened within the last 90 days of the application date, and

  • account balances that are considerably greater than the average balance reflected on the VOD.

Recent Related Announcements

The table below provides references to recently issued Announcements that are related to this topic.

Announcements Issue Date
Announcement SEL-2022-10 December 14, 2022
Announcement SEL-2022-04 May 04, 2022


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